Formative events in Tibetan and Buddhism history.
Events within Tibet, and directly related to Tibet, are highlighted.
Other events are more distantly related,
or help us to locate ourselves in the stream of world history.
Humans in tibet.
Humans in india.
|~5000 - ~3000 BCE||india||
Aryans into india.
Villages in tibet.
|~2500 - ~1500 BCE||india||
Indus civilizations of Harappa and Mohenjotaro.
Used advanced technologies such as an intricate system of water supply and sewer drainage. Seem to already have worshipped Shiva and Devi.
Sanskrit literature probably began.
Vedic period ends.
King Sisunaka (or Shishunaga) was founder of the Shaishunaga dynasty of 10 kings. Rajagriha, east of Varanasi, which is also called Girivraja, became the capital of Magadha in what is now Southern Bihar.
Siddartha teaches the Path.
Mahavira founds Jainism.
An explosion of other philosophies and thought all over the world around this time.
The "new" Nanda dynasty.
Alexander invades india.
The Maurya dynasty; were Buddhists.
Ashoka is Buddhist ruler of india.
Mahendra, emperor of india.
During his reign Buddhism was spread in sri lanka.
Leads the expedition sent out by his father to sri lanka.
There plants a branch of the original Bodhi tree, brought from Bodh Gaya by his sister Sanghamitta, a Buddhist nun. The tree now there is said to be the same tree, and branches from it have been taken to all the Buddhist countries. ref
Versified narratives of the creation and the mythical lives of the gods.
Ramayana epic composed by Valmiki.
Relates the history of Rama, Sita and Hanuman. 48,00 lines of eight syllables each.
Purgyal dynasty. Constructed the first fort in tibet at Yumbu.
The Kanva dynasty.
Contemporary with the Roman emperor Augustus.
|~20 BCE||sri lanka||
in sri lanka.
In some accounts he spent the "missing" years of his 20s in India, and brought concepts of Buddhism back to his people, which became "Christianity".
Is thought to have survived his crucifixion and returned to the east. [refs TBD.]
|1st century CE||china|
Purgyal king Tho Tho Ri Nyantsen born.
The Gupta dynasty. A reign of tolerance.
For almost two centuries there was stability in Central india so that the arts flourished. Apart from sculpture and painting, the Gupta period was remarkable for the renaissance of the classical Sanskrit language, and the cdreation, or recreation, of the great Sanskrit literature as we know it today. ref
The Chinese Buddhist scholar Fa Hien who visited india in the years 399-414 of the Gupta period, regarded india as the sacred land of the buddha, but the Gupta emperors referred on their coins to the deity as Bhagavad or Vishnu. Their reign was apparently marked by complete tolerance, long before there was any suggestion of this in Europe. ref
"Old English" language comes to british isles.
Mahabarata completed no later than this.
Buddhism formally introduced into Tibet.
People cross Bering strait from Siberian area ...
and start populating the americas.
In addition, there are strking similarities in physical appearance and culture of Navajo and some other american peoples to Tibetan.
Tibetan script developed.
Classical age of Tibet.
begins unification of Tibetan kingdoms.
King Namri Songtsan of Yarlung, the territory south of the Tsangpo River, begins the unification of Tibet's many kingdoms.
Reign of Songtsen Gampo
Built the Tsulakhang, and major re-building of the Potala Palace.
Son of the 32nd ruler of the Purgyal dynasty, Namri Songtsen. Also known as Tri Songtsen. Known as Chi-tsung-lung-tsan to Chinese. Ruled Tibet from 629, in his 13th year, till his death in 650. Continued the consolidatation of Tibet begun by his father Namri Songtsen Did many things for the welfare of the people. ref
Having already married three Tibetan princesses and a Nepalese princess, Brikuthi, he takes a Chinese princess, Wen-Ch'eng, as his bride, thus creating alliances with the countries to the west and east.
Reign of Songtsen Gampo has military conquests.
introduces Buddhism to Tibet.
Songtsen Gampo marries two Buddhist princesses, Brikuthi from Nepal and Wen-Ch'eng from China, and they bring Buddhism with them.
Tibetans become powerful in central Asia.
In 670 Tibetans raid the Tarim Basin, in Taklamakan Desert in Inner Asia. Capture four garrisons at Ansi, which was under Chinese domination, and routs the Chinese commander Hsueh Jen-juei sent to retake them. ref
Warfare breaks out between Tibet and the T'ang dynasty of China.In 676 Tibetans raid several towns in Chinese province of Kansu ref
Tibet gains influence along trade route through central Asia.
Mahayana Buddhism spreads in Tibet, mainly through Padmasambhava.
The Great Eighth Century.
Beowulf written (i.e., Old English had writing by this time).
Tibetans put down revolt in Nepal and northern india.
Tibetans capture and hold towns in China.
Trisong Detsen becomes king.
Trisong Detsen sends for Shantarakshita.
Samye - first Tibetan gompa - founded by Shantarakshita.
Shantarakshita comes again to Tibet on the request of King Trisong Detsen, and builds Samye monastery with the help of Padmasambhava. Was built in the Drakmar region, 50 miles south of Lhasa, and is similar to the one at Odantapuri in Bihar. It was based on the conception of the Buddhist universe. Twelve years later it came to be known as Migyu Lhungi Dubpai Tsuklakhang ("The Temple which is unchangeable, Perfect Mass"), but popularly known as Samye.
Shantarakshita also trained seven Tibetans to become the first Tibetan Buddhist monks. This was very successful, and many more people became monks. Shantarakshita also established a center for the study of Sanskrit languages at Samye. ref
Peace treaty signed between the Chinese and the Tibetans.
|750, 754, 778||Tibet||
Military alliances and Tibetan soldiers beyond
|785 - 805||Tibet||
Tibetan control over the Pamirs and the Oxus.
Trisong recaptures the four garrisons lost to Chinese earlier, and advances into the Pamirs and the Oxus basin. The Tibetans were also fighting on the western side, and the Chinese border was neglected. ref
Muni Tsenpo takes over kingdom from his father.
Reforms of Ralpachen.
Trauma of the 800s.
Langdarma, brother of King Ralpachen, succeeds Trisong Detsen. He is against religion and buddhism. Has Ralpachen killed, seals many temples, and harasses the monk community. In 842 a monk kills him with an arrow. The succession contested, and the kingdom dissolves, leaving Tibet in a state of political upheaval. Unsettled times follow with impotent, non-religious kings, and division of Tibet into small warring principalities. ref
|c. 1052-c. 1135||Tibet||
Milarepa, living and teaching in Tibet
|10th and 11th c.||Tibet||
Renaissance of Buddhism in Tibet.
With Darma's crackdown on Buddhist monks, three monks gather as many Buddhist texts as they can and flee central Tibet to Amdo.
Meanwhile in the Ngari region of western Tibet, Tseno Kohre, grandson of the ruler there, builds the Toling monastery and becomes a monk, Lama Yeshe Od. He sends men to Kashmir to study Sanskrit and Buddhist doctrines, and other young men to go to Amdo to receive monk ordination, along with many other things to promote learning.
"New Translation Period"
Marpa brings indian buddhist teachings to tibet.
Sakyapa lineage founded.
|1079 - ??||Tibet||
Gampopa, founder of Kagyud school.
The Muslim Conquest of india.
|1100s and 1200s CE||Tibet||
Mongol invasion of Tibet.
Tibet invaded by the army of Chengis Khan of Mongolia.
|1240 - 1253||Tibet, Mongolia||
Priest-patron relationship between Tibet and Mongolia.
becomes the religious tutor of the Mongol emperors;
Godan Khan and his community adopt
Kublai Khan adopts Buddhism.
restores Tibet's sovereignty.
Priest-patron relationship established, with Mongolia as the yajamana, patron.
Kublai Khan after receiving the Vajrayana initiation from a lama Phagpa, offers thirteen myriarchies of central Tibet (Khrikhor-chusum), which were under his rule at that time, as guru dakshina (offering to his teacher) to Phagpa. This restores the sovereignty of Tibet. Kublai Khan pledges that he will remain Yajamana (Benefactor) for Tibet.
This was a purely religious relationship, not political. ref
Remaining area of Tibet restored.
After the death of his brother, Monke Kublai Khan succeeded as Khagan, the Grand Mongol Emperor. He also received initiation from Lama Phagpa. Thereupon the remaining area of Tibet, comprising the conplete three regions (chol-kha-sum), was offered to Lama Phagpa, again as a tribute of a student to a teacher.
In 1260 Kublai Khan, as emperor of China's Yuan dynasty, bestows the title Ti-shi ("Imperial Preceptor") upon Phakpa, making the Sakyapa order the most powerful in Tibet.
The united Tibet was placed under the rule of Lama Phagpa. the year after (1265), Lama Phagpa, now called as "Dgon Chogyal Phapa" (Dharma King, The Protector of Living Beings), came back to Sakya in central Tibet to consolidate the kingdom. Since then, Tibetans address the Sakya dynasty as "Gongma", which is similar to the address used by Mongolian and chinese kings. ref
In 1270 Kublai Khan converted to Tibetan Buddhism.
Kublai Khan becomes Chinese emperor;
Sakya power declines.
Political rivalries and power plays. Chanchub Gyaltsen takes power, getting recognition from Chinese government to legitimize it. He is an efficient and just administrator, and first person to prepare instruction handbooks on administrative procedures.
He is succeeded by several rulers who have short reigns. ref
Tibetan lamas become teachers of Chinese emperor.
Fall of Yuan dynasty.
Frees Tibet from dependence on China. Factions begin to struggle for control over Tibet.
First Dalai Lama, Gendun Drub.
Tashilhunpo monastery founded
Tashilhunpo monastery, future seat of Panchen Lamas, founded by the first Dalai Lama.
Gelukpa school founded.
|1400s and 1500s CE||Tibet||
Tibetan politics and intrigue involve support of Mongols. ref
Second Dalai Lama, Gedun Gyatso.
Karma Ten Kyong Wanpo rules Tibet.
Son of Tseten Dorje, with title "Depa Tsangpa". Rules at Shigatse. For next elevent years conquers large areas of Tibet; cultivates friendship with the Mongols. A distinguished ruler and a learned religious. ref
The Moghul (Mongol) dynasty.
Third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso.
Born at Tohlung near Lhasa. Studied at Drepung Monastery, took final initiation from Sonam Drakpa. A brilliant scholar and teacher, and the personal guru of Nedong Gongma of Nedong. Visited Altan Khan in Mongolia and taught him, and in return was given the title "Talai" (in Mongolian) meaning "the embodiment of ocean of wisdom". This title came to be inherited by his succeeding reincarnations, and was applied retroactively to Gedun Dupa and Gedun Gyatso, the First and Second Dalai Lamas. ref
Established a diplomatic office at Tongkhor (aka Lusar) to maintain close relationship between Dalai Lama and the Khan. Founded Lithang Monastery in the Kham region. Altan Khan's son and successor, Dhuring Khan, invited Sonam Gyatso, and on the way the Dalai Lama built a monastery at Kumbum, where his son Tsongkhapa was born. ref Institution of Dalai Lamas initiated by Altan Khan
Akbar, "The Mystic Emperor".
The greatest indian emperor in a thousand years, not only because of his conquests and bringing order to india, but created his own religion, the Din Ilahi, as well as entertained all other religions in his court. This at the time when wars of religion were raging in Europe. ref
To him is attributed the tale of the elephant, to which scholars were brought blindfolded to touch and then made to debate what it was they had touched. ref
First Panchen Lama, Lozang Chokyi Gyalthen, born.
First Panchen Lama, Lozang Chokyi Gyalthen, the teacher of the fifth Dalai Lama, born. Title "Panchen" ("The Great Scholar") conferred by the fifth Dalai Lama. The Panchen Lamas became the second most important religious leaders in Tibet.
Fourth Dalai Lama, Yonten Gyatso.
Fifth Dalai Lama, Ngawang Lozong Gyatso: "The Great Fifth".
1625 - Ordained by the Panchen Lama.
1638 - gave religious instruction to Gushri Khan, the chief of the Qoshot Mongols, and received the title "Tenzin Choskyi Gyalpo" (Relgious King and Holder of the Buddhist Faith). Sent a permanent representative to Mongola for maintaining good relations. ref
1642 - Political rivalries result in his being asked by winning faction, aligned with Gushri Khan, to rule Tibet. ref
Visited Peking on repeated invitation of the Manchu Emperor of China, and received and conferred title. ref
1679 - Appointed Sangye Gyatso as Desi (regent). ref
1682 - died in the Potala. The regent (Desi), Sangye Gyatso, concealed the fact of his demise for thirteen years, until the construction of the Potala was completed (1695). ref
Sixth Dalai Lama, Tsangyang Gyatso.
Mongolian Khans (Gushri Khan and his descendant Lhasang Khan) stay in Tibet to help administer government. Lhasang Khan disputes authenticity of Tsangyang Gyatso as real reincarnation of fith Dalai Lama, installs another person, Yeshi Gyatso. However monasteries and people of Tibet do not recognize him.
Lhasang Khan rules Tibet.
Seventh Dalai Lama, Kalsang Gyatso.
Born at Lithang in Kham; recognized as the Seventh Dalai Lama, given protection by some Mongolian tribes and taken to Koko Nor region. ref
Mongols and Manchu emperor send a garrison of military and bring him to Lhasa. The Jungars flee from Lhasa and return to Jungar region in Mongolia. Dalai Lama is installed in Potala Palace, and a seven-member committee is set up temporarily to rule Tibet: two Mongolians, two Manchus, and three Tibetans. The Mongolian troops are withdrawn, but the Chinese garrison remains in Lhasa on the pretext of peace-keeping. After one year, the temporary colmmittee is dissolved, and the power is handed over to the council of ministers under the seventh Dalai Lama. ref
1727 - There is a struggle for power among the council of ministers, leading to civil war. One of the most important ministers, Pholha, seeks military support from China, which it gladly provides as an opportunity to intervene in Tibet's internal affairs. The Council of Ministers is reorganized, with Pholha wielding the real power. He is an effficient admnistrator, and sees that the monassteris are well maintained. He establishes a permanent military force of 3000, and asks the Manchu Emperor to withdraw the Chinese garrison. They reduce it but do not withdraw it. ref
The Ambans at Lhasa continue to create divisions and mistrust among the Tibetan high officials in order to weaken the government and make it dependent on Chinese support.
1747 - Pholha dies, succeeded by his younger son Gyumey Namgyal.
1750 - There is strife and murder among the Tibetan administrtors, Ambans, and the Chinese. The Dalai Lama is able to restore peace and order. He assumes more powers as the chief executive and head of government, establishing the temporal authority of the Dalai Lama. ref
Tse Wang Rabten rules Tibet.
Britain invades and takes over india.
Robert Clive wins the battle of Plassey and becomes master of Bengal. This marks the beginning of "modern" times in india, and upheaval of its people and culture from which it is still recovering to this day.
Eighth Dalai Lama, Jamphel Gyatso.
All through his life he was immersed in religious matters; he did not like political administration and left it in the hands of the Regents.
War with the Gorkhas (of Nepal).
1792 - A second invasion by the Gorkhas reached to Shigatse, and ravaged the Tashilhunpo Monastery. These attacks again involved Tibet with China, as Tibetan government sought (and received) Chinese military support, and also unwanted Chinese interference in internal administration. ref
Ninth Dalai Lama, Lungtok Gyatso.
From Dan Chokhar in Kham.
During this time Chinese power waned. The monks from China, living in Tibet, persuaded the monks of Drepung, Sera, and Ganden, three large and important monasteries, to prevail upon the Tibetan government to ban the entry of foreigners into Tibet. This it did; isolating Tibet from the outside world and hindering Tibet's progress. ref
Tenth Dalai Lama, Tshultrim Gyatso.
From Lithang in Kham. The Dalai Lama suffered ill-health throughout his short life, and died young.
During this time Mongols near Koko Nor region raided area of Tibet. People of Powo district revolted against Tibetan government but were subjugated. ref
Eleventh Dalai Lama, Khedrup Gyatso.
Also dies young.
Dogra-Sikh-Tibetan battles in Ladakh and Leh. ref
The Second Gorkha-Tibetan war.
An agreement is reached in 1856. ref
Twelfth Dalai Lama, Trinley Gyatso.
Also dies young.
Thirteenth Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso: "The Great Thirteenth".
Born at Dagpo Langdun. 1895 - Took temporal power at the age of sixteen, when Tibet was politically and economically very weak, and Chinese illegal interference was at a peak.
1886 - British get "permission" from Chinese government to enter Tibet. Tibetan governement denies this authority, determine not to allow any Britisher inside Tibet, and set up a checkpoint at Lungthur, near Sikkimese border.
1888 - British ask Dalai Lama to remove checkpoint or they will attack. Battle ensues, Tibetans defeated, and British enter Tibet and Bhutan.
1890 - A treaty is entered between Lord Lansdowne, British Governor-General in india, and the Manchu Amban, but without knowledge of Tibet, establishing border between Tibet and Sikkim, and making Sikkim a British protectorate.
1903 - Col. Francis Younghusband military expedition to Tibet, to negotiate trade and relations with Tibetan government. Losang Trinley and Tsarong are sent to talk to Younghusband on the border, and not inside Tibet. British prevail, enter Tibet, and camp at Khamba Dzang. Tibetan officials and Ambans come to meet with British, but Tibetans insist that Chinese have no say in their trade matters, and Ambans leave. After three months of stay, the British withdraw to Sikkim.
1904 - British troops open fire on Tibetan army at Guru, while Tibetan commanders are talking to Younghusband. Also capture Gyantse fort. Younghusband reaches Lhasa but can only negotiate with Regent, as Dalai Lama has fled to Mongolia.
1904-1907 - Various agreements between the British and Tibet, Chinese, and Russia weaken Tibet's position in the world.
1909 - Dalai Lama returns to Tibet. Visits Peking with the hope of finding a peaceful solution to Sino-Tibetan border dispute, and China's designs on Tibet.
1910 - On his return to Lhasa, he had to flee to india within a month's time due to the arrival of Chinese military forces at Lhasa. ref
1913 - Returned to Lhasa after expelling the Chinese troops, including the Ambans. Reasserted the independence of Tibet through special proclamation, and entered into a peace treaty with Mongolia. Sent a delegation to Simla convention to take part on equal footing with British India and China. ref
1913-1914 - Anglo-Sino-Tibetan Simla Conference; agreement never ratified by China.
British presence in Tibet gives military training and arms to Tibet.
Secularization of Chinese government ends priest-patron relationship.
Many progressive projects initiated by him. Gave several proposals for land reforms, social reforms, and modernisation of Tibet in terms of national security and political systesm. Not all could be implemented due to lack of human resources, and lack of public awareness about affairs of state. Introduced machinery for electricity generation, postal and telegraph system and road construction; issued paper currency. Issued a testimonial statement in 1932 which later proved to be a perfect prophecy of what happened afterward. ref
|1895-1986||India, England, United States||
Chiang-Kai-Shek revolution in China.
The Republican Government of Chiang-Kai-Shek (Yuan-shih-Kai) expells the Manchus in China, and Chiang declares himself President. He also states that Tibet, Mongolia, and Sinkiang are provinces of the Chinese Republic.
Chinese attack Tibet.
Chinese attack Dargyas Monastery, and annex territory from Tchienllu to Szechwan. The Thirteenth Dalai Lama and the President conclude a truce but it is violated by the Chinese army. An uneasy peace is restored with the intevention of the British. ref
|1933 December 17||Tibet||
Thirteenth Dalai Lama passes on.
|1935 July 6||Tibet||
Fourteenth Dalai Lama is born.
Fourteenth Dalai Lama to Lhasa.
Official recognition of Fourteenth Dalai Lama.
Fourteenth Dalai Lama enters Lhasa.
|1940 February 22||Tibet||
Fourteenth Dalai Lama is installed.
Fourteenth Dalai Lama begins his monastic education at the age of five. (Earth-Hare Year) ref
The Regent abdicates.
Fourteenth Dalai Lama receives his novice vows at the age of 7.
Tibet is recognized de facto as an independent country.
Tibetan delegates take part in Asian Relations Conference in Delhi, where the Tibetan national flag is raised, and speeeches made by Tibetan representatives.
Communist revolution, headed by Mao Tse-tung
China invades Tibet; begins systematic destruction of Tibetan culture and Buddhism.
Chinese armies march into Tibet near Chamdo, and at the same time on the Indian territory of Aksai Chin. Capture some parts of northwest Tibet. Khampa volunteers and the Tibetan army oppose but cannot hold for long.
Indian protest to China elicits the reply that tibet is an integral part of China, and that India should not interfere in its internal matters. Tibet takes matter to United Nations, of which it is not a member. Situation is not discussed, but continually postponed.
Chinese forge Tibetan seals on 17-point statement, and force the Tibetan delegates to sign it. (However, they ultimately break the terms of this statement anyway.)
By 1954 Tibet had lost its independence to China. ref
|1950 November 17||Tibet||
Fourteenth Dalai Lama assumes full temporal power.
|1950 December 16||Tibet||
Fourteenth Dalai Lama departs Lhasa.
|1951 January to July||Tibet||
Fourteenth Dalai Lama resides in Dromo.
|1951 May 23||Tibet||
|1951 July 16||Tibet||
Chinese delegation meets with His Holiness.
|1951 July 24||Tibet||
Dalai Lama departs Dromo.
|1951 August 17||Tibet||
Dalai Lama arrives in Lhasa.
Dalai Lama receives gelong.
Dalai Lama confers first Kalachakra.
|1954 July to 1955 June||Tibetan World||
Dalai Lama visits China.
|1956 November to 1957 March||Tibetan World||
Dalai Lama visits India.
The Fourteenth Dalai Lama visits India to participate in the 2500th Buddha Jayanti celebrations. ref He meets Jawaharlal Nehru, who says he is unable to help against China, and advises the Dalai Lama to go back to Tibet.
The Chinese become more and more savagely oppressive in Tibet. The Tibetans rebel. ref
Dalai Lama receives Lharampa degree.
|1959 March 10||Tibet||
Tibetan people's uprising in Lhasa.
|1959 March 15||Tibet||
Chinese troops fire artillery on Norbulingka.
|1959 March 17||Tibet, to India||
Fourteenth Dalai Lama escapes from Lhasa.
On 10 March,
the people protest an invitation from Chinese in
for the Dalai Lama to attend an entertainment,
The Chinese mass weapons against the
At ten on the night of 18 March,
the Dalai Lama with close relations, colleagues,
and Tibetan soldiers leave the Potala.
Around the same time the Chinese bombard
|1959 March||Tibet in exile||
Tibetan government reestablished at Lhudup Dzong.
|1959 March 30||Tibet in exile||
Dalai Lama enters India.
The Dalai Lama crosses into India near Mangmany (Tibetan village) in early April. Arrives at Bodilla on 12 April, and driven by jeep to Tezpur on 18 April. The Indian Government arranges a special train from Tezpur to Mussoorie, where he stays for a year before settling in Dharamshala. ref
|1959 April 18||Tibet in exile||
Dalai Lama repudiates the 17-Point Agreement.
|1959 April 20||Tibet in exile||
Dalai Lama arrives in Mussoorie.
|1959 April 30||Tibet in exile||
Dalai Lama arrives in Dharamshala.
|1960s||China, Tibet, Eastern Turkestan, Mongolia||
|1960-present||Tibet, to the World||
Tibetans into exile.
|1963||Tibet in exile||
A draft constitution and exile parliament.
Dalai Lama makes his first visits abroad.
|1968||Tibet in exile||
Dalai Lama shifts to Thekchen Choeling.
|1973 September to November||Tibetan World||
Dalai Lama makes his first visits to the West.
|1979||Tibet in exile||
Dalai Lama makes contact with PRC.
17th Karmapa Lama born in Lhatok.
Dalai Lama presents Five-Point Peace Plan.
Dalai Lama presents Strasbourg Proposal.
|1989 December 10||The World||
Dalai Lama is awarded Nobel Prize for Peace.
|1992||Tibet in exile||
Dalai Lama institutes more democratic steps for Tibet-in-exile.
Having intitated a democratic constitution and Parliament for Tibet-in-exile, the Dalai Lama initiates a number of additional major democratic steps, including the direct elections of Kalons (Ministers) by the Assembly of Tibetan People's Deputies, (previously Kalons were appointed directly by His Holiness), and the establishment of a judiciary branch. ref
|1995 May 17||Tibet||
PRC arrests Chadrel Rinpoche, the abbot of Tashi Lhunpo, who headed the search team for the child Panchen Lama, Gendun Choekyi Nyima. The child and his family are removed under escort from their home, apparently to a holding place in Beijing. A reported 5,000 troops are moved to Shigatse.
1995 July 13 Up to 30 monks are arrested from Tashilhunpo monastery after protesting against the denunciation of Chadrel Rinpoche. All foreign tourists are expelled from Shigatse.
PRC installs 5-year-old Gyaltsen Norbu as fake Panchen Lama.
The PRC installs 5-year-old Gyaltsen Norbu as a fake Panchen Lama. Gendun Choekyi Nyima, who was sanctioned by the Dalai Lama as the Panchen Lama, is condemned by China's official press for having once drowned a dog. His whereabouts is unknown.
1995 November 11 PRC press announces that leading lamas at a closed meeting in Beijing have agreed to reject Gendun Choekyi Nyima (Dalai Lama's official choice) as the Panchen Lama, and to select a different child as the reincarnation of the Panchen Lama.
|1996 January 18||???||
Bomb explodes at house of Sengchen Lobsang Gyaltsen.
Bomb explodes at the house of Sengchen Lobsang Gyaltsen, main supporter of the PRC in the Panchen Lama succession dispute.
Panchen Lama Gendun Choeki Nyima is held in Beijing.
Panchen Lama Gendun Choeki Nyima is held under house arrest in Beijing.
|2000||Tibet to India||
17th Karmapa Lama escapes to India.
|2001||Tibet in exile||
First direct democratic elections.
Arjia Gegeen visits Dharamshala, India.
|2011||Tibet in exile||
Dalai Lama relinquishes his temporal power.
In March 2011, His Holiness the Dalai Lama sends a letter to the Assembly of Tibetan People's Deputies (Tibetan Parliament-in-exile) requesting them to devolve his temporal power. ref
In May 2011, the Dalai Lama transfers his temporal power to Kalon Tripa. His Holiness the Dalai Lama signs into law the formal transfer of his temporal power to the democratically elected leader. This brings to an end the 368-year old tradition of the Dalai Lamas being both spiritual and temporal head of Tibet. ref
|2016||Tibet in exile||
Second direct democratic elections.
|2016 - 2017||Tibet in exile||
After 60 years, India finally enforces its own law
providing passport for Tibetans born in India.
Social activist Lobsang Wangyal files a PIL (Public Interest Litigation) against the government of India which is immediately granted by the High Court of India. This action is followed by a multitude of eligible Tibetans applying for passport, then more court orders to get the concerned offices to act on the original order; also by a huge change in Tibetan-exile and Indian culture in adjusting to this. ref
|2017 July 13||China||
Freedom fighter and man of compassion,
Liu Xiabao, passes.