|Tibet||Humans left artifacts in what is now Tibet||
Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) tools found,
also Neolothic (New Stone Age).
Sure in southern Tibet, and Lu Ling in central
|~20,000 BC||India||Humans left artifacts in what is now India||
|~5000 - ~3000 BC||India||Aryan peoples migrated into India||
probably came from the west, from what is now Iran,
disloging the Dravidians.
(Veddas may be the oldest peoples in
now only in the hills of Sri Lanka.)
|~3000 BC||Tibet||Villages in Tibet||
Karub, near the town Chamdo in eastern Tibet,
the remains of a whole Neolithic village,
with streets and houses, stone tools, millstones,
|~2500 - ~1500 BC||India||The Indus civilizations of Harappa and Mohenjotaro||Used advanced technologies such as an intricate system of water supply and sewer drainage. Seems to already have worshipped Shiva and Devi.|
|16th century BC:|
|~1500 BC||India||Vedic literature probably began.||Although some of the hymns might be much older.|
|13th century BC:|
|~1200 BC||India||Sanskrit literature probably began|
|11th century BC:|
|c. 1052-c. 1135 CE||Tibet||Milarepa||Living and teaching in Tibet|
|~1000 BC||India||Vedic period ends|
|7th century BC:|
|~650 BC||India||King Sisunaka or Shishunaga||Founder of the Shaishunaga dynasty of 10 kings. Rajagriha, east of Varnasi, which is also called Girivraja, became the capital of Magadha in what is now Southern Bihar.|
|~600-~200 BC||India||Upanishads composed||The Upanishads are philosophical treatises of fundamental importance for world philosophy.|
|6th century BC:|
|~500 BC||India||Gautama Siddartha teaches the Path||Gautama was the Buddha of this age.|
|~500 BC||India||Vardhamana Mahavira founds Jainism||The popularity of Buddhism and Jainism may have both been a reaction against the institutionalized, formal, Brahmin-dominated Hinduism of the time.|
|~500 BC||Persia||Darius I reigned||
Extended his empire down to the Indus valley, and even sent
a fleet to
perhaps the first navy in history.
The Persians brought the so-called Aramaic alphabet
(later also used for Persian).
In India this was developed into the Kharoshti alphabet,
which became the mother of all the Indian alphabets
up to modern times
(except Urdu and Sindhi, which came with the Arabo-Persian system
Buddhism brought the Indian scripts to South-East Asia, where the writing systems of Burmese, Thai, Laotian, Cambodian (Khmer), Balinese and Javanese are still based on a form of ancient Indian script.
|~500 BC||India||King Bimbisara||The first historical ruler of India. May have been a patron of the Buddhist monks and their monasteries. Descendant of King Sisunaka, of the Shaishunaga dynasty. His son Ajatashatru (Kunika) visited Gautama Buddha. Was related to Vardhamana Mahavira, the founder of Jainism.|
|5th century BC:|
|4th century BC:|
|~400-320 BC||India||The "new" Nanda dynasty||Nine kings, descendants of King Mahapadma and his eight sons, reigned in Magadha, India.|
|326 BC||India||Alexander the Great invades Western India.|
|320-185 BC||India||The Maurya dynasty||
Chandragupta, whose chief minister was Chanakya Kautilya, the first political scientist. Son was Binduara (297-272 BC), whose son was Ashoka .
|3rd century BC:|
|272-232 BC||India||Ashoka is Buddhist ruler of India||
A contemporary of the Egyptian ruler Ptolemy II. Ashoka knew of him and other rulers of his time.
|232-204 BC||India||Mahendra, emperor of India.||Son of Ashoka. During his reign Buddhism was spread in Sri Lanka.|
|~222 BC||India||Mahinda founds Buddhist monastery in Sri Lanka||
leads the expedition sent out by his father to Sri Lanka.
There plants a branch of the original
by his sister Sanghamitta,
a Buddhist nun.
The tree now there is said to be the same tree,
and branches from it hae been taken to
all the Buddhist countries.
|~200 BC||India||Puranas composed||Versified narratives of the creation and the mythical lives of the gods.|
|~200 BC||India||Ramayana epic composed by Valmiki||Relates the history of Rama, Sita and Hanuman. 48,00 lines of eight syllables each.|
|2nd century BC:|
|185-73 BC||India||The Shunga dynasty||
Briharatha's commander-in-chief Pushyamitra assassinated him and founded the Shunga dynasty. Several famous stupas remain from the Shunga period.
|127 BC||Tibet||Beginning of Purgyal dyanasty||
A descendant of a king exiled from Magadha,
was elected as the ruler of the Yarlung,
and named Nyatri Tsampo.
He constructed the first fort in Tibet at Yumbu,
which is known as
|1st century BC:|
|73-28 BC||India||The Kanva dynasty||Contemporary with the Roman emperor Augustus.|
|~20 BC||Sri Lanka||The Pali Canon, or Tripitaka, written down||in Sri Lanka.|
|1st century CE:|
|1st c. CE||China||Mahayana Buddhism spreads to China.||
|2nd century CE:|
|2nd c. CE||India||Huvishka reign||
A central Asian ruler who reigned in North
Said to be a
|173 CE||Tibet||Tho Tho Ri Nyantsen born||
Twenty-eighth king of Purgyal dyanasty.
During his sixtieth birthday, a
scripture came to him from
|4th century CE:|
|320-647 CE||India||The Gupta dynasty||
For almost two centuries there was stability in Central
so that the arts flourished.
Apart from sculpture and painting,
the Gupta period was remarkable for the renaissance of the classical
and the cdreation, or recreation, of the great Sanskrit literature
as we know it today.
The Chinese Buddhist scholar Fa Hien who visited India in the years 399-414 of the Gupta period, regarded India as the sacred land of the Buddha, but the Gupta emperors referred on their coins to the deity as Bhagavad or Vishnu. Their reign was apparently marked by complete tolerance, long before there was any suggestion of this in Europe.
|5th century CE:|
|~400 CE||India||Bhagavadgita written||The Sermon of Krishna (i.e., Vishnu himself); became part of the Mahabarata.|
|~400 CE||India||Mahabarata completed no later than||The most voluminous single work of Indian literature, over 200,000 lines. The fountain of Indian mythology. Oldest portions probably date from late Vedic period, about 1000 BC.|
|6th century CE:|
|Japan||Mahayana Buddhism spreads to Japan.||
|~500 CE||Tibet||Buddhism introduced into Tibet||Lha-tho Tho-Ri Nyen-Tsen King of Tibet, introduced Buddhism into Tibet. Nagarjuna|
|7th century CE:|
|Tibet||Tibetan script developed.||
Current forms of Tibetan written characters developed
sent his minister Thon-mi Sambhota to
to learn Sanskrit.
With the knowledge he brought back of the Gupta Brahmi
script, Sam-bhota developed a Tibetan script.
|Tibet||Classical age of Tibet||
From the period of
the great Gar family.
"Around this same time, thanka painting, silkworms, stone mills, paper and ink were introduced into Tibet, and Tibetan writing and grammar became codified." [ ref ]
|617-650 CE||Tibet||Tri Songtsen (Songtsen Gampo)||
Son of 32nd ruler of Purgyal dynasty,
Known as Chi-tsung-lung-tsan to Chinese.
Ruled Tibet from 629, in his 13th year,
Did many things for the welfare of the people.
The Tsulakhang was built during his reign, and the Potala Palace was built up.
One of his queens was the Nepalese princess Brikuti.
|~640 CE||Tibet||Reign of Songtsen Gampo has military conquests||
defeats Chinese empoeror Tai-tsung,
takes the city of Sunglchou,
captures portions of Burma,
in 640 occupies Nepal.
|670 CE||Tibet||Tibetans raid the Tarim Basin in Inner Asia||
In Taklamkan Desert.
Capture four garrisons at Ansi, which was
under Chinese domination, and routs the
Chinese commander Hsueh Jen-juei sent to
|676 CE||Tibet||Tibetans raid several towns in Chinese province of Kansu||
|8th century CE:|
|Tibet||Mahayana Buddhism spreads to Tibet.||
Mainly introduced by the teachings of
|Tibet||The Great Eighth Century||
Three famous temples -
Drakmar Dinang, Chimnipu Namral and Drakma Keru -
were constructed to the south of Lhasa during
the reign of Tride Tsugtsen.
|704 CE||Tibet||Tibetans put down revolt in Nepal and northern India||
Led by King Duson Mangje (?).
|741, 748 CE||Tibet||Tibetans capture and hold towns in China||
Led by King Tride Tsugtsen.
|755 CE||Tibet||Trisong Detsen becomes king||
Son of King Tride Tsugtsen,
(who was killed by his ministers).
although his ministers
|~760 CE||Tibet||The era of Shantarakshita||
Trisong Detsen sends Ba Salnang to Nepal to request
to come to Tibet to teach
Shantarakshita comes but doesn't think Tibet
is ready for Buddhism; advises the king to invite
|779 CE||Tibet||Samye - First Tibetan gompa||
comes again to Tibet on the request of
King Trisong Detsen, and builds Samye
with the help of
Was built in the Drakmar region,
and is similar to the one at Odantapuri in Bihar.
It was based on the conception of the
Twelve years later it came to be known as
Migyu Lhungi Dubpai Tsuklakhang
("The Temple which is unchangeable, Perfect Mass"),
but popularly known as
Shantarakshita also trained seven Tibetans to become the first Tibetan Buddhist monks. This was very successful, and many more people became monks. Shantarakshita also established a center for the study of Sanskrit languages at Samye.
|783 CE||Tibet||Peace treaty signed between the Chinese and the Tibetans||
The treaty of Chi'ing-shui, demarcating the boundaries
between the two countries.
|750, 754, 778 CE||Tibet||Military alliances and Tibetan soldiers beyond Tibetan frontiers||
750 - Alliance with Siamese king Kolofeng.
754 - Kolofeng helped Tibetans when Nan-chao attacked by Chinese.
778 - Tibetans and Siamese fight side by side against the Chinese at Szech'uan. Tibetan army remains in Siam for eights years until peaceful relations are restored.
|785 - 805 CE||Tibet||Tibetan control over the Pamirs and the Oxus||
Trisong recaptures the four garrisons lost to
Chinese earlier, and advances into the Pamirs and
the Oxus basin.
The Tibetans were also fighting on the western side,
and the Chinese border was neglected.
|797 CE||Tibet||Muni Tsenpo takes over kingdom from his father.||
Trison Detsen abstains from public life and
hands over his kingdom to his second son
Muni Tsenpo introduces great social and economic reforms.
|9th century CE:|
|821 CE||Tibet||Sino-Tibetan Treaty||
Under King Ralpachen, with influence of
The text of the treaty was inscribed on three pillars,
in China capital, at boundary, and in Lhasa at Jokhang.
|821 CE||Tibet||Reforms of Ralpachen||
Under King Ralpachen,
built a new temple,
introduced a new system of weights and measures based
model, ordered that seven households should
be responsible for maintenance of one
|836 CE||Tibet||Trauma of the 9th century||
Darma, evil brother of King Ralpachen,
is against religion and
Has Ralpachen killed, seals many temples.
and harasses the monk community.
A monk kills him with an arrow.
Unsettled times follow
with impotent, non-religious kings,
and division of Tibet into small
|10th century CE:|
|10th and 11th c. CE||Tibet||A few monks conserve Buddhist teachings; Buddhism restored in Central Tibet||
With Darma's crackdown on Buddhist monks,
three monks gather as many Buddhist texts
as they can and flee central Tibet to Amdo.
Meanwhile in the Ngari region of western Tibet, Tseno Kohre, grandson of the ruler there, builds the Toling monastery and becomes a monk, Lama Yeshe Od. He sends men to Kashmir to study Sanskrit and Buddhist doctrines, and other young men to go to Amdo to receive monk ordination, along with many other things to promote learning.
These events marked the renaissance of Buddhism in Tibet.
|11th century CE:|
|Tibet||"New Translation Period"|
|Tibet||Marpa brings Indian Buddhist teachings to Tibet||
from Tibet and gets teachings,
which he passes on to his disciple
is founded from these teachings.
|Tibet||Sakyapa lineage founded||
is founded by
Khion Konchog Gyalpo
|1079 - ?? CE||Tibet||Gampopa, founder of Kagyupa school||
tradition of the
Following his teaching, separate schools developed under three of his disciples. One of the disciples, Karmapa, founded the Karma-ka-gyü school.
|12th century CE:|
|India||The Muslim Conquest of India||Individual kings fighting among themselves, leave India open for conquest from outside.|
|12th and 13th c. CE||Tibet||Mongol invasion of Tibet||First foreign invasions; priest-patron relationship develops between Tibet and Mongolia, with Mongolia as the yajamana, patron.|
|13th century CE:|
|India||The Mongol Conquest of India||
Muslim sultans fighting among themselves,
open for conquest from outside.
Jengiz Khan raids the Western Punjab, and later Lahore, Sindh and Multan.
A century later, in 1398, Timur Lang, a descendant of Jengiz Khan, takes Multan and Delhi.
|1200 CE||India||Buddhism as an organized religion ceases to exist in India||In 1193 in Bihar, thousands of unarmed Buddhist monks were put to the sword, and the great library of the oldest Buddhist college in the world was totally destroyed. All the priceless works of Buddhist philosophy went up in flames.|
|1209 CE||Tibet||Tibet invaded by the army of Chengis Khan of Mongolia||
Minyag was occupied.
A few of the adjoining chieftains made peace
with the Mongols.
|1240 - 1253 CE||Tibet, Mongolia||Priest-patron relationship between Tibet and Mongolia||
After Chengis Khan's
Bodan Khan, invaded and caputred most part
of Tibet; ruled it for thirteen years.
The Mongolians adopted Buddhism; developed a sound administrative system for Tibet which lasted for many centuries.
|1247 CE||Tibet, Mongolia||Sakya Pandit becomes the religious tutor of the Mongol emperors; Godan Khan and his community adopt Buddhism||
Godan Khan invited
Sakya Pandita Kunga Gyaltsen
to Mongolia, and he and his community adopted
of Tibetan lineage.
Sakya Pandit is leader of the sakya sect; becomes the religious tutor of the Mongol emperors. In exchange is given poltical rule over Tibet while acknowledging China's (i.e., Mongols') authority.
|1251 CE||Tibet, Mongolia||Kublai Khan adopts Buddhism||
the successor of Godan,
becomes disciple of
Drogon Chosgyal Phagpa,
the young nephew of
who had accompanied his uncle to Mongolia.
Invited Tibetan lamas to China.
|1253 CE||Tibet, Mongolia||Kublai Khan restores Tibet's sovereignty; priest-patron relationship established, with Mongolia as the yajamana, patron.||
after receiving the
initiation from a lama Phagpa,
offers thirteen myriarchies of central Tibet
(Khrikhor-chusum), which were under his rule at
that time, as
(offering to his
This restores the sovereignty of Tibet.
Kublai Khan pledges that he will remain
Yajamana (Benefactor) for Tibet.
This was a purely religious relationship, not political.
|1260 CE||Tibet, Mongolia||Remaining area of Tibet restored||
of his brother,
Monke Kublai Khan succeeded as Khagan,
the Grand Mongol Emperor.
He also received initiation from Lama Phagpa.
Thereupon the remaining area of Tibet,
comprising the conplete three regions
was offered to Lama Phagpa,
again as a tribute of a student to a
The united Tibet was placed under the rule of Lama Phagpa. the year after (1265), Lama Phagpa, now called as "Dgon Chogyal Phapa" (Dharma King, The Protector of Living Beings), came back to Sakya in central Tibet to consolidate the kingdom. Since then, Tibetans address the Sakya dynasty as "Gongma", which is similar to the address used by Mongolian and chinese kings.
|1271 CE||Mongolia, China||Kublai Khan becomes Chinese emperor; beginning of Yuan Dynasty||
Kublai Khan conquers China, ascends the throne,
and assumes the name of "Yuan", thus starting
the Yuan Dynasty in China.
The relationship between Tibet and Mongolia
|14th century CE:|
|Tibet||Sakya power declines||
Political rivalries and power plays.
Chanchub Gyaltsen takes power, getting recognition
from Chinese government to legitimize it.
He is an efficient and just administrator, and first
person to prepare instruction handbooks on
He is succeeded by several rulers who have short reigns.
|Tibet||Tibetan lamas become teachers of Chinese emperor||
In 1407 Deshan Shakpa, 4th incarnation of the
goes to China as the spiritual
of the Ming emperor.
The emperor also invited
Tsongkhapa Lozang Drakpa,
but he declined. However, he sent his disciple instead.
|Tibet||Tsang Nyon writes biographies of Milarepa and Marpa||Nyonh is a famous nyonpa of Tibet. Writes "The Life of Marpa the Translator" and another for Milarepa.|
|1391-1474 CE||Tibet||First Dalai Lama, Gedun Dupa||
in his lifetime.
Took lessons from
Was recognized as the First Dala Lama after the
of Sonam Gyatso,
Third Dalai Lama.
|15th century CE:|
|early 15th c. CE||Tibet||Gelukpa school founded||
Tsongkhapa Lozang Drakpa
to which the
|15th and 16th c. CE||Tibet||Tibetan politics and intrigue involve support of Mongols.||
|1476-1542 CE||Tibet||Second Dalai Lama, Gedun Gyatso||
Born at Tanag Segme in Tsang.
Studied in Tashi Umpo and later became its abbot.
also became chief abbot of Drepung Monastery,
and since then he and his
until the fifth Dalai Lama, were residents of Drepung.
|16th century CE:|
|16th c. CE||Tibet||Karma Ten Kyong Wanpo rules Tibet||
Son of Tseten Dorje, with title
Rules at Shigatse.
For next elevent years conquers large areas of Tibet;
cultivates friendship with the Mongols.
A distinguished ruler and a learned religious.
|1526-1657 CE||India||The Moghul (Mongol) dynasty||
Babur, descendant of Tamerlane, crushes Ibrahim at Pajipat
makes himself Sultan and Padishah (emperor) of Delhi,
and founds the Moghul (Mongol) dynasty.
|1543-1588 CE||Tibet||Third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso. Institution of Dalai Lamas initiated by Altan Khan||
Born at Tohlung near Lhasa.
took final initiation from
A brilliant scholar and
and the personal
of Nedong Gongma of Nedong.
in Mongolia and taught him,
and in return was given the title "Talai"
(in Mongolian) meaning
"the embodiment of ocean of wisdom".
This title came to be inherited by his succeeding
and was applied retroactively to
the First and Second Dalai Lamas.
Established a diplomatic office at Tongkhor (aka Lusar) to maintain close relationship between Dalai Lama and the Khan. Founded Lithang Monastery in the Kham region. Altan Khan's son and successor, Dhuring Khan, invited Sonam Gyatso, and on the way the Dalai Lama built a monastery at Kumbum, where his son Tsongkhapa was born.
|1556-1605 CE||India||Akbar, "The Mystic Emperor"||
emperor in a thousand years,
not only because of his conquests and bringing
order to India, but
created his own religion, the Din Ilahi,
as well as entertained all other religions in
This at the time when wars of religion
were raging in Europe.
To him is attributed the tale of the elephant, to which scholars were brought blindfolded to touch and then made to debate what it was they had touched.
|1589-1616 CE||Tibet||Fourth Dalai Lama, Yonten Gyatso||
Given relgiious training by a Mongolian
in 1615 blessed the
temple in Nanking at the request of
Shen-tsung, emperor of China.
|17th century CE:|
|1617-1682 CE||Tibet||Fifth Dalai Lama, Ngawang Lozong Gyatso: "The Great Fifth"||
Was an effective ruler and administrator,
an excellent diplomat, an outstanding scholar.
Built palaces and monasteries,
and enlarged the
Peace prevailed during his rule.
1625 - Ordained by the Panchen Lama.
1638 - gave religious instruction to Gushri Khan, the chief of the Qoshot Mongols, and received the title "Tenzin Choskyi Gyalpo" (Relgious King and Holder of the Buddhist Faith). Sent a permanent representative to Mongola for maintaining good relations.
1642 - Political rivalries result in his being asked by winning faction, aligned with Gushri Khan, to rule Tibet.
Visited Peking on repeated invitation of the Manchu Emperor of China, and received and conferred title.
1665 - Recognized the reincarnation of the Panchen Lama, Lozang Yeshe.
1679 - Appointed Sangye Gyatso as Desi (regent).
1684 - A treaty established the border between Tibet and Ladakh.
1682 - died in the Potala. The regent (Desi), Sangye Gyatso, concealed the fact of his demise for thirteen years, until the construction of the Potala was completed (1695).
|1683-1707 CE||Tibet||Sixth Dalai Lama, Tsangyang Gyatso||
Did not abide by the monastic rules;
was not interested in affairs of the State or
in performing obligations of
Lived a wordly life, composed excellent romantic verses and songs.
Mongolian Khans (Gushri Khan and his descendant Lhasang Khan) stay in Tibet to help administer government. Lhasang Khan disputes authenticity of Tsangyang Gyatso as real reincarnation of fith Dalai Lama, installs another person, Yeshi Gyatso. However monasteries and people of Tibet do not recognize him.
1707 - forces of Lhasang Khan take Tsangyan Gyatso to Mongolia, and he dies on the way.
|18th century CE:|
|1707-1717 CE||Tibet||Lhasang Khan rules Tibet||
However not as representative of Mongolia,
just as a Mongolian heading Tibetan government.
|1717 CE||Tibet||Tse Wang Rabten rules Tibet||
A Mongolian Jungar chief
who has enmity with the tribe to which
belongs, attacks Tibet, kills Lhansang Khan,
and takes power and rules Tibet.
|1708-1757 CE||Tibet||Seventh Dalai Lama, Kalsang Gyatso||
Born at Lithan in Kham;
recognized as the seventh Dalai Lama,
given protection by some Mongolian tribes
and taken to Koko Nor region.
Mongols and Manchu emperor send a garrison of military and bring him to Lhasa. The Jungars flee from Lhasa and return to Jungar region in Mongolia. Dalai Lama is installed in Potala Palace, and a seven-member committee is set up temporarily to rule Tibet: two Mongolians, two Manchus, and three Tibetans. The Mongolian troops are withdrawn, but the Chinese garrison remains in Lhasa on the pretext of peace-keeping. After one year, the temporary colmmittee is dissolved, and the power is handed over to the council of ministers under the seventh Dalai Lama.
1727 - There is a struggle for power among the council of ministers, leading to civil war. One of the most important ministers, Pholha, seeks military support from China, which it gladly provides as an opportunity to intervene in Tibet's internal affairs. The Council of Ministers is reorganized, with Pholha wielding the real power. He is an effficient admnistrator, and sees that the monassteris are well maintained. He establishes a permanent military force of 3000, and asks the Manchu Emperor to withdraw the Chinese garrison. They reduce it but do not withdraw it.
The Ambans at Lhasa continue to create divisions and mistrust among the Tibetan high officials in order to weaken the government and make it dependent on Chinese support.
1747 - Pholha dies, succeeded by his younger son Gyumey Namgyal.
1750 - There is strife and murder among the Tibetan administrtors, Ambans, and the Chinese. The Dalai Lama is able to restore peace and order. He assumes more powers as the chief executive and head of government, establishing the temporal authority of the Dalai Lama.
He builds the Norbulingka summer palace, and establishes the Tse School.
|17th c. CE||Tibet||Dalai Lama is leader of gelukpa sect||In exchange is given poltical rule over Tibet while acknowledging China's authority. (?)|
|1757 CE||India||Britain invades and takes over India||Robert Clive wins the battle of Plassey and becomes master of Bengal. This marks the beginning of modern times in India.|
|1758-1804 CE||Tibet||Eighth Dalai Lama, Jampal Gyatso||
During his time the war with the Gorkhas (of Nepal)
All through is life he was immersed in religious matters,
did not like political administration and left it
in the hands of the Regents.
1792 - A second invasion by the Gorkhas reached to Shigatse, and ravaged the Tashilhunpo Monastery. These attacks again involved Tibet with China, as Tibetan government sought (and received) Chinese military support, and also unwanted Chinese interference in internal administration.
|19th century CE:|
|18th-19th c. CE||India||European scholars||(re)discover and preserve Indian/Hindu ancient literature and language, including Buddhist literature.|
|1806-1815 CE||Tibet||Ninth Dalai Lama, Lungtok Gyatso||
From Dan Chokhar in Kham.
When he was ten years old he died of pneumonia after taking part in the annual Monlam festival.
During this time Chinese power waned. The monks from China, living in Tibet, persuaded the monks of Drepung, Sera, and Ganden, three large and important monassteries, to prevail upon the' government ot ban the entry of foreigners into Tibet. This it did; isolating Tibet from the outside world and hindering Tibet's progress.
|??-1837 CE||Tibet||Tenth Dalai Lama, Tshultrem Gyatso||
From Lithang in Kham.
During this time Mongols near Koko Nor region
raided area of Tibet. People of Powo district
revolted against Tibetan governement but were
The Dalai Lama suffered ill-health throughout,
and died young.
|1838-1856 CE||Tibet||Eleventh Dalai Lama, Khedrup Gyatso||
Also dies young.
The Dogra-Sikh-Tibetan battles in Ladakh and Leh occurs during this time (1841).
|1856-1875 CE||Tibet||Twelfth Dalai Lama, Trinley Gyatso||
Also dies young.
The Second Gorkha-Tibetan war (Nepal) occurs during this time, and an agreement is reached in 1856.
|1876-1933 CE||Tibet||Thirteenth Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso: "The Great Thirteenth"||
Born at Dagpo Langdun.
1895 - Took temporal power at the age of sixteen,
when Tibet was politically and economically
very weak, and
Chinese illegal interference was at a peak.
1886 - British get "permission" from Chinese government to enter Tibet. Tibetan governement denies this authority, determine not to allow any Britisher inside Tibet, and set up a checkpoint at Lungthur, near Sikkimese border.
1888 - British ask Dalai Lama to remove checkpoint or they will attack. Battle ensues, Tibetans defeated, and British enter Tibet and Bhutan.
1890 - A treaty is entered between Lord Lansdowne, British Governor-General in India, and the Manchu Amban, but without knowledge of Tibet, establishing border between Tibet and Sikkim, and making Sikkim a British protectorate.
1903 - Col. Francis Younghusband military expedition to Tibet, to negotiate trade and relations with Tibetan government. Losang Trinley and Tsarong are sent to talk to Younghusband on the border, and not inside Tibet. British prevail, enter Tibet, and camp at Khamba Dzang. Tibetan officials and Ambans come to meet with British, but Tibetans insist that Chinese have no say in their trade matters, and Ambans leave. After three months of stay, the British withdraw to Sikkim.
1904 - British troops open fire on Tibetan army at Guru, while Tibetan commanders are talking to Younghusband. Also capture Gyantse fort. Younghusband reaches Lhasa but can only negotiate with Regent, as Dalai Lama has fled to Mongolia.
1904-1907 - Various agreements between the British and Tibet, Chinese, and Russia weaken Tibet's position in the world.
1909 - Dalai Lama returns to Tibet. Visits Peking with the hope of finding a peaceful solution to Sino-Tibetan border dispute, and China's designs on Tibet.
1910 - On his return to Lhasa, he had to flee to India within a month's time due to the arrival of Chinese military forces at Lhasa.
1913 - Returned to Lhasa after expelling the Chinese troops, including the Ambans. Reasserted the independence of Tibet through special proclamation, and entered into a peace treaty with Mongolia. Sent a delegation to Simla convention to take part on equal footing with British India and China.
1913-1914 - Anglo-Sino-Tibetan Simla Conference; agreement never ratified by China.
British presence in Tibet gives military training and arms to Tibet.
Secularization of Chinese government ends priest-patron relationship.
Many progressive projects initiated by him. Gave several proposals for land reforms, social reforms, and modernisation of Tibet in terms of national security and political systesm. Not all could be implemented due to lack of human resources, and lack of public awareness about affairs of state. Introduced machinery for electricity generation, postal and telegraph system and road construction; issued paper currency. Issued a testimonial statement in 1932 which later proved to be a perfect prophecy of what happened afterward.
|1895-1986 CE||India, England, United States||Krishnamurti||
Born May 12, 1895,
at the village of Madanapalle, in India,
to Sanjeevamma, the wife of Jiddu Narianiah,
a minor civil servant.
Was said to be the reincarnation of the
Taught in England, the United States, and
India, until his death in 1986.
|20th century CE:|
|20th c. CE||Tibet, India||Fourteenth Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso: "The Great Fourteenth"||
Born in Takster, Amdo.
1940 - Installed as Fourteenth. Tagdak Rimpoche, his senior tutor, becomes Regent.
Political and religious leader; Nobel Peace prize; urges democracy on Tibetan people in exile in India; helps spread Buddhism throughout the world.
|1915(?) CE||China||Chiang-Kai-Shek revolution in China||The Republican Governement of Chiang-Kai-Shek (Yuan-shih-Kai) expells the Manchus in China, and Chiang declares himself President. He also states that Tibet, Mongolia and Sinkian are provinces of the Chinese Republic.|
|1931 CE||Tibet||Chinese attack Tibet||
Chinese attack Dargyas Monastery,
and annex territory from Tchienllu to Szechwan.
The Dalai Lama and the President conclude a truce
but it is violated by the Chinese army.
An uneasy peace is restored with the intevention
of the British.
|1933-1946 CE||Tibet||Conditions unsettled in Tibet||
The Thirteenth Dalai Lama expires and Tibet
comes under the rule of a Regent.
1941 - the Regent abdicates. Chinese and British both play in Tibet.
1940-46 - Tibet retains neutral position during Second World War.
|1947-48 CE||Tibet||Tibet recognized de facto as an independent country.||
Tibetan delegates take part in Asian Relations
Conference in Delhi, where the Tibetan national
flag is raised, and speeeches made by Tibetan
India recognises Tibet's independence; passports of Tibetan Delegation are honored by France, Italy, UK, US, and all the countries the delegation visited.
|1949 CE||China||Communist revolution||
|1950 CE||Tibet||China invades Tibet; begin systematic destruction of Tibetan culture and Buddhism.||
Chinese armies march into Tibet near Chamdo, and at the same
time on the
territory of Aksai Chin.
Capture some parts of northwest Tibet.
Khampa volunteers and the Tibetan army oppose
but cannot hold for long.
Indian protest to China elicits the reply that Tibet is an integral part of China, and that India should not interfere in its internal matters. Tibet takes matter to United Nations, of which it is not a member. Situation is not discussed, but continually postponed.
Chinese forge Tibetan seals on 17-point statement, and force the Tibetan delegates to sign it. (However, they ultimately break the terms of this statement anyway.)
By 1954 Tibet had lost its independence to China.
"Of the more than four thousand tulkus in preinvasion Tibet, only a few hundred escaped."
|1954-59 CE||Tibet, China||Dalai Lama visits China, tries to achieve resolution||
with the Panchen Lama Choskyi Gyaltsen,
stays in China for six months,
on invitation from China.
He is unable to achieve resolution with China.
He visits India and Jawaharlal Nehru.
The Chinese become more and more savagely oppressive in Tibet. The Tibetans rebel.
|1959 CE||Tibet -> India||XIV Dalai Lama flees Tibet for India||
On March 10th,
the people protest an invitation from Chinese
for the Dalai Lama to attend an entertainment,
The Chinese mass weapons against the
At ten on the night of 18 March,
the Dalai Lama with close relations, colleagues,
and Tibetan soldiers leave the Potala.
Around the same time the Chinese bombard
The Dalai Lama crosses into India near Mangmany (Tibetan village) in early April. Arrives at Bodilla on 12th April and driven by jeep to Tzpur on April 18. The Indian Government arranges a special train from Tezpur to Mussoorie, where he stays for a year before settling in Dharamsala.
|1960's||China, Tibet, Eastern Turkestan, Mongolia||Cultural Revolution||A period of madness in China and neighboring countries. Millions of people were killed, tortured, and imprisoned. Monasteries and religious buildings and artifacts were destroyed.|
|1960-present CE||Tibetans in exile||
his government, and many refugee Tibetans
from which he runs the
Tibetan Government in Exile.
1994 - About 115,000 Tibetans are living in exile; some in Dharamsala, more in the rest of India and in Nepal, others in Europe and North America.
|1992 CE||India||His Holiness the Dalai Lama receives the Nobel Peace Prize.||His Holiness the Dalai Lama|
|1998 (?)||Karmapa Lama escapes to India||Orgyen Trodul Thinley Dorje, the XVIIth Karmapa Lama, escapes Tibet to India.|
|21st century CE:|
|2001 CE||Mongolia||Arjia Gegeen visits Dharamsala, India||Arjia Gegeen is a Mongol Rinpoche who came to the United States; lives in Mill Valley California.|